Housing and Urbanization: A Socio-Spatial Analysis of Resettlement Projects in Hồ Chí Minh City

SIT Graduate Institute, Paper 1284, 4-1-2012

Michael J. Stumpf

“As Hồ Chí Minh City continues to undergo rapid urbanization, especially with the creation of a multitude of new urban zone developments on the periphery of the inner districts, the resettling of people has become common. Families who live within areas that are selected for urban upgrading or, as in other cases for the construction of new miniature cities, must face the realities of relocation. Many issues arise in the complicated process of resettling the displaced, due to complex land-use laws, bureaucratic dissonance, and lack of investment in actual resettlement housing. The authorities of Hồ Chí Minh City have faced palpable challenges in facilitating the many processes of resettlement, from persuading developers to invest in resettlement housing to establishing suitable compensation packages. Confusing legal labyrinths, delays in plan approval, and miscommunications between agencies, results in tangible affects on the highly vulnerable displaced families. Additionally, a serious disconnect arises between planners’ envisioned solution for resettlement housing and the real needs of the resettled, who are usually low-income workers. When the precise needs of displaced families and their prior sources of economic livelihood are disregarded, the general result is unsuitable design and the disordering of previously established socio-spatial networks. Additionally the displaced tend to be sent to occupy less advantageous space, as a result of gentrification, and are spatially repositioned in more excluded, disconnected marginal zones. Past and present resettlement procedures have faltered due especially to a lack of socio-spatial planning, which has resulted in undesirable threats to equitable metropolisation and rising potentials for urban fragmentation.”

Suicide and Media Reporting: A Longitudinal and Spatial Analysis

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric EpidemiologySocial Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Published online 10 August 2012

Yang AC, Tsai SJ, Yang CH, Shia BC, Fuh JL, Wang SJ, Peng CK, and Huang NE

“PURPOSE: The impact of media reporting on copycat suicides has been well established in various cases of celebrity suicide. However, knowledge is limited about the spatial and temporal relationship between suicide death and media reporting over a long period of time. This study investigated the association of suicide deaths with suicide news in longitudinal and spatial dimensions.

“METHODS: All suicides during 2003-2010 (n = 31,364) were included. Suicide news in the study period was retrieved from Google News, and included all available news media in Taiwan. Empirical mode decomposition was used to identify the main intrinsic oscillation, reflecting both major and minor suicide events, and time-dependent intrinsic correlation was used to quantify the temporal correlation between suicide deaths and suicide news.

“RESULTS: The media reporting of suicide was synchronized with increased suicide deaths during major suicide events such as celebrity death, and slightly lagged behind the suicide deaths for 1 month in other periods without notable celebrity deaths. The means of suicide reported in the media diversely affected the suicide models. Reports of charcoal burning suicide exhibited an exclusive copycat effect on actual charcoal burning deaths, whereas media reports of jumping had a wide association with various suicide models. Media reports of suicide had a higher association with suicide deaths in urban than in rural areas.

“CONCLUSIONS: This report suggested that a delayed effect of copycat suicide may exist in media reports of minor suicide events. The competitive reporting of minor suicide events must be avoided and addressed by media professionals.”

Esri Launches European Wind User Group

Esri logoMembers Share Insight into Spatial Technology to Develop, Plan, and Maintain Wind Farms

Wind energy professionals across Europe now have a local source for the exchange of ideas, success stories, and information about geospatial technology for on- and offshore wind farms: the Esri European Wind User Group. The group’s mission is to discuss the best ways to meet daily challenges and learn how proven applications of geographic information system (GIS) technology from Esri and its partners can support wind farm business processes.

“GIS technology allows us to develop, plan, and maintain wind farms,” said Anders Røpke, president of the European Wind User Group and GIS and environmental engineer for DONG Energy A/S in Denmark. “Spatial overview and analysis adds direct value to the DONG Energy wind power organization. Applied GIS services and analysis contribute positively to the business case for offshore wind power production.”

The first European Wind User Group meeting was held this past May in Gentofte, Denmark. The event was hosted by DONG Energy along with Informi GIS A/S, Esri’s distributor in Denmark.

Wind energy professionals, including operators and developers, are welcome to join the group via LinkedIn to stay apprised of upcoming events.

[Source: Esri press release]

Spatial Analysis on the Provision of Urban Amenities and their Deficiencies – A Case Study of Srinagar City, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Research on Humanities and Social SciencesResearch on Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.2, No.6, 2012

Jahangeer A. Parry, Showkat A. Ganaie, Zahoor A. Nengroo, and M. Sultan Bhat

“The paper examined inequality in the distribution of urban amenities in Srinagar City. Inequality in the study area is manifested in the form of unequal provision of social amenities within the wards (municipal units) of the City. The spatial distribution and concentration of two social amenities, viz, educational institutions and fire service stations was studied. The study mainly relied on the secondary sources of data. The Z-score variate has been used to determine the spatial concentration pattern in the provision of these amenities. However, Lorenz Curve proved to be a useful tool in accessing and quantifying the spatial disparity. The results of the analysis indicate that inequalities exist in the provision of accessibility of these amenities among different wards in Srinagar city. The reasons for the uneven distribution of urban amenities are spurt urban growth in the last three decades and poor management planning. The paper suggests that planning body must keep pace with the urban sprawl in order to ensure the equitable distribution of urban amenities in the city.”

Methods for the Spatial Analysis of Community Wellbeing, Resilience and Vulnerability

Proceedings of the AGILE’2012 International Conference on Geographic Information Science, Avignon, April, 24-27, 2012

Alexis Comber, Thilo Boeck, Jay Hardman, Claire Jarvis, and Peter Kraftl

“This paper proposes an approach for targeting priority areas for community engagement using data held by local authorities relating to local taxation, housing, education, public health outcomes and derived measures of vulnerability. It seeks to identify the relevant variables that are held by the local authority, to model community or neighbourhood trajectories by examining changes in such data over time as the first steps in a hierarchical approach for analysing community resilience and well-being.

Access to community oriented facilities.

Access to community oriented facilities.

“The outputs of these steps allow community engagement activities to be targeted. Initial results are described and key discussion points are outlined.”

USAID Development Data Available on ArcGIS Online

Esri logoMapped Data Provides Better Insight for Collaboration between Donors and Loan Recipients

Last month, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) launched the agency’s first-ever crowdsourcing initiative to clean and map development data such as guarantees, loans disbursed, and available financing. Volunteers used a simple crowdsourcing tool created with Esri technology to find the required location information. This data can now be easily visualized on an Esri Story Map and in ArcGIS Online, providing better insight for the private sector to explore new areas for collaboration with host countries, researchers, development organizations, and the public.

USAID’s GeoCenter worked in cooperation with the agency’s Development Credit Authority (DCA) to identify a global dataset of approximately 117,000 records to map and make available to the public. The data cleaning and geocoding process was crowdsourced to volunteer technical communities including the Standby Task Force (SBTF) and GISCorps. All the work was completed in just 16 hours—44 hours earlier than expected.

“By mapping guaranteed loan data, not only are we able to visually tell the story of cost-effective, private-sector-led development, but we are opening ourselves up to new opportunities and potential collaboration,” said Ben Hubbard, director of USAID’s DCA.

Visualizing this data on a map can change the way USAID’s field missions plan for guarantees as well as where they invest development dollars to maximize their impact. By seeing where the loans are concentrated, USAID missions can better analyze whether the guarantees are fully reaching targeted regions.

“Mapping USAID-mobilized loans at the state level for each country allows USAID missions, for the first time, to analyze guarantees across country borders,” said John Steffenson, director of federal, civilian, global affairs, and nonprofits, Esri. “We are pleased to continue partnering with USAID through this project.” Making this data freely available on ArcGIS Online ensures that other donors can compare and even overlay their own guarantee data to identify opportunities to increase collaboration.

To view a Story Map application displaying the crowdsourced data and success stories, visit Esri Story Map. To make your own story map with the crowdsourced data and maps, visit Esri Story Map.

[Source: Esri press release]

A GIS and Remote Sensing based Evaluation of Groundwater Potential Zones in a Hard Rock Terrain of Vaigai Sub-basin, India

Arabian Journal of GeosciencesArabian Journal of Geosciences, Published Online 11 January 2012

Prabu Pothiraj and Baskaran Rajagopalan

“In this paper, remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and fieldwork techniques were combined to study the groundwater conditions in Vaigai basin, Tamilnadu. Several digital image processing techniques, including standard color composites, intensity–hue–saturation transformation and decorrelation stretch were applied to map rock types. Remote sensing data were interpreted to produce lithological and lineament maps such as geology, geomorphology, soil hydrological group, land use/land cover and drainage map were prepared and analyzed using GIS Arc Map GIS Raster Calculator module as geomorphology × 12 + drainage × 9 + lineament × 5 + geology × 8 + land use × 2 + relief × 4. The final cumulative map generated by applying the above equation had weight values ranging from 0.315 to 4.515. The overall results demonstrate that the use of remote sensing and GIS provide potentially powerful tools to study groundwater resources and design a suitable exploration plan, the thematic maps for the study area.”

Spatial Analysis of Pregnancy Complications Associated with Maternal Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Ontario

Queen’s University, Master’s thesis, 31 July 2012

Jessica Stortz

“Aim: The aim of this study was to: 1) investigate the geographic distribution of six pregnancy complications associated with future maternal cardiovascular disease risk in the province of Ontario and 2) to identify regions where women are likely to benefit from post-partum cardiovascular disease screening, based on the development of complications during pregnancy.

“Rationale: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Canadian women. Pregnancy has been likened to a cardiovascular stress test and provides an early opportunity to assess a female’s lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease.

Age-standardized cumulative incidence of gestational diabetes by Public Health Unit area in Ontario (2005-2009)

Age-standardized cumulative incidence of gestational diabetes by Public Health Unit area in Ontario (2005-2009)

“Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of data collected for the Niday Perinatal Database, provided by the Better Outcomes Registry & Network. Crude and age-standardized cumulative incidences of six pregnancy complications, and one or more pregnancy complications, were calculated for each Public Health Unit area in Ontario. The cumulative incidence of one or more pregnancy complications for women with no previous history of cardiovascular disease or traditional cardiovascular risk factors was calculated at the Public Health Unit and census subdivision area levels. Spatial statistics were applied to locate statistically significant clusters of high cumulative incidence.

“Results: Crude and age-standardized cumulative incidences of each pregnancy complication and one or more pregnancy complications varied across Public Health Unit areas in Ontario. The crude cumulative incidence of one or more complications ranged from 74 to 224 cases per 1000 pregnancies. The spatial analysis identified one statistically significant cluster of high cumulative incidence at the Public Health Unit area level, spanning the Lambton, Chatham-Kent, and Windsor-Essex Health Unit areas. Seven statistically significant clusters of high cumulative incidence census subdivisions were located within the following Public Health Unit areas: Chatham-Kent, Lambton, Middlesex-London, Ottawa, Leeds, Grenville and Lanark, Renfrew County, Simcoe Muskoka, Grey Bruce, and Eastern Ontario.

“Conclusion: Regional variation in the cumulative incidence of six pregnancy complications associated with cardiovascular disease risk was observed in Ontario. Statistically significant clusters of high cumulative incidence of one or more of these pregnancy complications were identified. These regions in particular may benefit from post-partum screening clinics and increased awareness regarding the association between pregnancy complications and cardiovascular disease.”

Land Degradation Risk Assessment of El Fayoum Depression, Egypt

Arabian Journal of GeosciencesArabian Journal of Geosciences, Published Online 13 February 2012

R. R. Ali and W. A. M. Abdel Kawy

“The main objective of this study is to assess the land degradation risk of cultivated land in El Fayoum depression. The physiographic map of the depression was produced by using remote sensing and land surveying data. The depression comprises lacustrine plain, alluvial–lacustrine plain, and alluvial plain representing 12.22%, 53.58%, and 34.20% of the total area, respectively. The soil, climate, and topographic characteristics of the depression were extracted from land surveying, laboratory analyses, digital elevation model, and available reports. A simple model was designed to employ these data for assessing the chemical and physical risk of land degradation using Arc-GIS 9.2 software. The obtained results indicate that severe risk to chemical and physical degradation affect 54.15% and 29.23% of the depression, respectively. The current status of soil salinity, sodicity, and water table indicate that most of lacustrine and alluvial–lacustrine soils are actually degraded by salinization, sodification, and waterlogging. The results of degradation risk and the actual hazard indicate that the human activities are not sufficient to overcome the degradation processes in the most of the depression (80. 22%). Moreover, a negative human impact affects 26.29% of the area mostly in the alluvial plain. Great efforts related to the land management are required to achieve the agriculture sustainability.”

Geographical Distribution of Salmonid Alphavirus Subtypes in Marine Farmed Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L. , in Scotland and Ireland

Journal of Fish DiseasesJournal of Fish Diseases, Published online: 17 July 2012

D A Graham, E Fringuelli, H M Rowley, D Cockerill, D I Cox, T Turnbull, H Rodger, D Morris, and M F Mc Loughlin

“Sequence data from salmonid alphavirus (SAV) strains obtained from farmed marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. , over a 20-year period between 1991 and 2011 was reviewed to examine the geographical distribution of the genetically defined SAV subtypes in twelve regions across Ireland and Scotland. Of 160 different Atlantic salmon SAV strains examined, 62 belonged to subtype 1, 28 to subtype 2, 34 to subtype 4, 35 to subtype 5 and 1 to subtype 6. SAV subtypes 1, 4 and 6 were found in Ireland, while subtypes 1, 2, 4 and 5 were found in Scotland. In the majority of regions, there was a clear clustering of subtypes, with SAV subtype 1 being the dominant subtype in Ireland overall, as well as in Argyll and Bute in Scotland. SAV subtype 2 predominated in the Shetland and Orkney Islands. The emergence in Atlantic salmon of subtype 2 strains typically associated with sleeping disease in rainbow trout in Argyll and Bute, strongly suggesting transmission of infection between these species, was noted for the first time. SAV subtype 4 was the most common subtype found in the southern Western Isles, while SAV subtype 5 predominated in the northern Western Isles and north-west mainland Scotland. No single strain was dominant on sites in the western Highlands, with a number of sites in this region in particular having more than one subtype detected in different submissions. The significance of these results in relation to aspects of the epidemiology of infection, including transmission, biosecurity and wildlife reservoirs are discussed and knowledge gaps identified.”