Geographical Distribution of Salmonid Alphavirus Subtypes in Marine Farmed Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L. , in Scotland and Ireland

Journal of Fish DiseasesJournal of Fish Diseases, Published online: 17 July 2012

D A Graham, E Fringuelli, H M Rowley, D Cockerill, D I Cox, T Turnbull, H Rodger, D Morris, and M F Mc Loughlin

“Sequence data from salmonid alphavirus (SAV) strains obtained from farmed marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. , over a 20-year period between 1991 and 2011 was reviewed to examine the geographical distribution of the genetically defined SAV subtypes in twelve regions across Ireland and Scotland. Of 160 different Atlantic salmon SAV strains examined, 62 belonged to subtype 1, 28 to subtype 2, 34 to subtype 4, 35 to subtype 5 and 1 to subtype 6. SAV subtypes 1, 4 and 6 were found in Ireland, while subtypes 1, 2, 4 and 5 were found in Scotland. In the majority of regions, there was a clear clustering of subtypes, with SAV subtype 1 being the dominant subtype in Ireland overall, as well as in Argyll and Bute in Scotland. SAV subtype 2 predominated in the Shetland and Orkney Islands. The emergence in Atlantic salmon of subtype 2 strains typically associated with sleeping disease in rainbow trout in Argyll and Bute, strongly suggesting transmission of infection between these species, was noted for the first time. SAV subtype 4 was the most common subtype found in the southern Western Isles, while SAV subtype 5 predominated in the northern Western Isles and north-west mainland Scotland. No single strain was dominant on sites in the western Highlands, with a number of sites in this region in particular having more than one subtype detected in different submissions. The significance of these results in relation to aspects of the epidemiology of infection, including transmission, biosecurity and wildlife reservoirs are discussed and knowledge gaps identified.”

MapSAR Website Provides Online Resources to Search and Rescue Personnel

Esri logoGIS Tools and Virtual Communities Now Available in One Location

Esri today announced the launch of a new web portal that supplies search and rescue (SAR) personnel with GIS tools, educational materials, and a virtual community for learning and sharing.

“The launch of the MapSAR website is the result of a community of search and rescue personnel linked together by their use of GIS,” says Russ Johnson, global director of disaster response for Esri. “The goal is to build on that work and supply standards, documents, and training to the international SAR community. We want to help these outstanding organizations and individuals with their very important job—finding lost people.”

GIS and SAR professionals from Sierra Madre Search and Rescue Team, Esri, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, Yosemite National Park, Grand Canyon National Park, and Mountaineer Rescue Group came together to develop the MapSAR application. It supplies all SAR personnel, regardless of technical background and skill, with the tools and knowledge needed to effectively use GIS in their operations. Staff members will be able to easily establish their own protocols and workflows to carry out the mapping and planning functions within the incident command structure (ICS). They will be able to apply GIS skills to effectively track search teams and assets for safety and operational efficiency.

The MapSAR site includes the following:

  • MapSAR Tool: This free tool runs with Esri ArcGIS 10 software and enables maps to be generated, stored, and printed quickly so that search teams can deploy faster to look for missing people.
  • SAR E-books: Two newly published e-books give personnel a rich array of information. Using GIS for Wildland Search and Rescue is a core instruction manual for developing a working knowledge of all things GIS for every team member. MapSAR User’s Manual is for more advanced GIS users and provides an introduction to and a detailed tutorial for MapSAR.
  • Search and Rescue Forum: This peer-to-peer network provides a place to discuss technical challenges.

For more information, visit

[Source: Esri press release]

A Spatial Analysis of the Expanding Roles of Nurses in General Practice

BMC Nursing 2012, 11:13, Published 07 August 2012

Christopher Pearce, Sally Hall, Christine Phillips, Kathryn Dwan, Rachael Yates, and Bonnie Sibbald

“Background: Changes to the workforce and organisation of general practice are occurring rapidly in response to the Australian health care reform agenda, and the changing nature of the medical profession. In particular, the last five years has seen the rapid introduction and expansion of a nursing workforce in Australian general practices. This potentially creates pressures on current infrastructure in general practice.

“Method: This study used a mixed methods, ‘rapid appraisal’ approach involving observation, photographs, and interviews.

“Results: Nurses utilise space differently to GPs, and this is part of the diversity they bring to the general practice environment. At the same time their roles are partly shaped by the ways space is constructed in general practices.

“Conclusion: The fluidity of nursing roles in general practice suggests that nurses require a versatile space in which to maximize their role and contribution to the general practice team.”