Testing the Use of Geostatistics to Improve Data Visualization: Case Study on GPR Survey of Tarragona’s Cathedral

Archaeological ProspectionArchaeological Prospection, published online 21 June 2012

Robert Tamba

“A ground-penetrating radar survey was conducted inside the Cathedral of Tarragona in order to explore the first 2 m beneath the ground surface. Initial processing and interpretation revealed a square perimeter related to a massive structure between 1 and 1.4 m below the ground surface. The results of the survey were used to test geostatistical tools by achieving a quantified data analysis and by filtering the data. The data analysis provided a description of the resolution and of the spatial distribution of the data. It included the characterization of the acquisition noise that was then filtered out by factorial kriging. This filtering technique allowed removing the acquisition noise, before the time-slice computation or any interpolation of the data, using weights of interpolation that are based on the spatial variations of the data. Having performed the filtering on the data at acquisition sampling allowed the use of optimized parameters for the visualization of the results, without having to remove remaining acquisition noise with the visualization operators. ”

BOMBER: A Tool for Estimating Water Quality and Bottom Properties from Remote Sensing Images

Computers & GeosciencesComputers & Geosciences, Volume 45, August 2012, Pages 313–318

Claudia Giardino, Gabriele Candiani, Mariano Bresciani, Zhongping Lee, Stefano Gagliano, and Monica Pepe

“BOMBER (Bio-Optical Model Based tool for Estimating water quality and bottom properties from Remote sensing images) is a software package for simultaneous retrieval of the optical properties of water column and bottom from remotely sensed imagery, which makes use of bio-optical models for optically deep and optically shallow waters. Several menus allow the user to choose the model type, to specify the input and output files, and to set all of the variables involved in the model parameterization and inversion. The optimization technique allows the user to retrieve the maps of chlorophyll concentration, suspended particulate matter concentration, coloured dissolved organic matter absorption and, in case of shallow waters, bottom depth and distributions of up to three different types of substrate, defined by the user according to their albedo. The software requires input image data that must be atmospherically corrected to remote sensing reflectance values. For both deep and shallow water models, a map of the relative error involved in the inversion procedure is also given. The tool was originally intended to estimate water quality in lakes; however thanks to its general design, it can be applied to any other aquatic environments (e.g., coastal zones, estuaries, lagoons) for which remote sensing reflectance values are known. BOMBER is fully programmed in IDL (Interactive Data Language) and uses IDL widgets as graphical user interface. It runs as an add-on tool for the ENVI+IDL image processing software and is available on request.”

Free Webinar: Integrating Geographic Information into AutoCAD

Esri logoAugust 2, 2012

9:00 a.m., 11:00 a.m., and 3:00 p.m. (Pacific daylight time)

ArcGIS for AutoCAD from Esri makes it easy for AutoCAD users to access maps and data from ArcGIS for use in computer-aided design (CAD) drawings. This free downloadable application also helps them prepare CAD data for use within ArcGIS while still maintaining CAD standards.

To become familiar with the application, join Esri for a free live training seminar, ArcGIS for AutoCAD, on August 2, 2012. After viewing this seminar, you will understand how to do the following:

  • Prepare GIS data using AutoCAD
  • Edit geodatabases within AutoCAD
  • Access, manage, edit, and view geographic information via ArcGIS for Server while in AutoCAD
  • View and use maps from ArcGIS Online within AutoCAD
  • Extract geometry and attributes while in AutoCAD from ArcGIS Online and your organization’s ArcGIS for Server maps

This live training seminar is geared toward AutoCAD and ArcGIS users who want to share geographic information in their project workflows. A basic understanding of AutoCAD and ArcGIS is recommended.

Attendees need a broadband Internet connection and an Esri Global Account to watch the live training seminar. Creating an Esri Global Account is easy and free: visit esri.com/lts, click Login, and register your name and address.

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Urban Flood Risk Assessment

Urban Water JournalUrban Water Journal, Published 27 July 2012

Shohan S. Ahmad & Slobodan P. Simonovicb

“Urban flood risk assessment requires quantification of uncertainty that is spatially and temporally variable. This paper presents a new approach to urban flood risk assessment by: (a) integrating objective and subjective uncertainties and (b) providing full insight into spatial and temporal change of flood risk. A 1-D storm sewer model and a 2-D surface flow model are integrated to describe the dynamic interactions between overland flow on the streets and flow through the storm sewer network. The fuzzy set theory approach is used to assess spatial and temporal variability of urban flood damage, and the acceptable level of partial flood damage. The spatial and temporal variability of fuzzy performance indices: (i) combined reliability-vulnerability; (ii) robustness and (iii) resiliency, are generated as the outcome of the urban flood risk analysis. The methodology is illustrated using the residential community of Cedar Hollow (London, Ontario, Canada) as a case study.”

Spatio-temporal Analysis of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Genetic Diversity at a Local Scale

Journal of Fish DiseasesJournal of Fish Diseases, Published online 16 July 2012

J-C Avarre1, A Santika, A Bentenni, Z Zainun, J-P Madeira, M Maskur, L Bigarré, and D Caruso

“Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), the causative agent of koi herpesvirus disease, is a major threat for carp populations in many countries worldwide, including Indonesia. It has been shown that many genotypes circulate worldwide, all highly related to one of the two known lineages U/I and J. In this study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution of CyHV-3 strains in a small enzootic area, the lake of Cirata (West Java, Indonesia). Of the 365 samples analysed, from clinical or asymptomatic fish, 244 were found positive for CyHV-3, suggesting a high occurrence of the virus. Genotyping of these viral specimens with a range of molecular markers revealed the presence of numerous haplotypes in the host population, all related to the J lineage. In single individuals, mixed-genotype infections occurred at high frequency. The present results demonstrate that polymorphic molecular markers are suitable to monitor the genetic evolution of a viral population in an enzootic area.”

To Ontologise or Not to Ontologise: An Information Model for a Geospatial Knowledge Infrastructure

Computers & GeosciencesComputers & Geosciences, Volume 45, August 2012, Pages 98–108

Kristin Stock, Tim Stojanovic, Femke Reitsma, Yang Ou, Mohamed Bishr, Jens Ortmann, and Anne Robertson

“A geospatial knowledge infrastructure consists of a set of interoperable components, including software, information, hardware, procedures and standards, that work together to support advanced discovery and creation of geoscientific resources, including publications, data sets and web services. The focus of the work presented is the development of such an infrastructure for resource discovery. Advanced resource discovery is intended to support scientists in finding resources that meet their needs, and focuses on representing the semantic details of the scientific resources, including the detailed aspects of the science that led to the resource being created.

“This paper describes an information model for a geospatial knowledge infrastructure that uses ontologies to represent these semantic details, including knowledge about domain concepts, the scientific elements of the resource (analysis methods, theories and scientific processes) and web services. This semantic information can be used to enable more intelligent search over scientific resources, and to support new ways to infer and visualise scientific knowledge.

The COMPASS user interface.

The COMPASS user interface.

“The work describes the requirements for semantic support of a knowledge infrastructure, and analyses the different options for information storage based on the twin goals of semantic richness and syntactic interoperability to allow communication between different infrastructures. Such interoperability is achieved by the use of open standards, and the architecture of the knowledge infrastructure adopts such standards, particularly from the geospatial community. The paper then describes an information model that uses a range of different types of ontologies, explaining those ontologies and their content. The information model was successfully implemented in a working geospatial knowledge infrastructure, but the evaluation identified some issues in creating the ontologies.”

Using GIScience Methods to Establish Spatial Information for Prehispanic Sites in the Malpaso Valley, Zacatecas, Mexico

Masters thesis, Texas State University-San Marcos, August 2012

Ryan Thomas Schuermann

“This research uses Geographical Information Science methods to establish spatial information pertaining to archaeological sites within the middle Malpaso Valley, Zacatecas, Mexico. Analysis of residual and Root Mean Square Error of geo-rectification produces both localized and overall geodetic accuracy assessments of a historic 1974 survey map. Ground control points acquired using Global Positioning System provide a basis for establishing confidence in the geo-rectified map. This research is a technological continuation of previous work in the Malpaso Valley, and aims to produce a useful map for spatial analysis and data management in future research.”

Example of ASL ambiguity between warped map and GPS recordings

Example of ASL ambiguity between warped map and
GPS recordings

Detection and Spatial Analysis of Selective Logging with Geometrically Corrected Landsat Images

International Journal of Remote SensingInternational Journal of Remote Sensing, Volume 33, Issue 24, 2012

Salma Anwar and Alfred Stein

“The Brazilian Amazonian rain forests are under imminent threat of serious degradation and ultimately deforestation. Human activities such as selective logging are an important cause. Selectively logged locations are difficult to detect from medium-resolution Landsat images, due to their relatively small sizes and subtle spatial patterns. Spectral linear unmixing provides an effective tool for the purpose. The orientation of geometrically corrected images, however, artificially introduces zero-reflectance background pixels. These change the variance–covariance structure of the image bands and hinder the identification of pure endmembers. In this study, we compare image cropping and image rotation as two alternative approaches. Selectively logged forests were detected in northern Rondônia state, north-western Mato Grosso state and south-eastern Amazonas state in Brazil by applying spectral unmixing. The study shows that image rotation is a better approach as it preserves the image extent and thus provides information on forest degradation over a wider region. Spatial statistical analysis of the detected locations shows strong clustering within the study area. We conclude that the endmembers used in this study represent basic components of a degraded forest environment. As spectral unmixing of remote-sensing images avoids collection of field data, it may broadly be applied towards other Amazonian regions as well.”

URISA Announces GIS Management Initiative

URISAURISA has announced an important new initiative to develop a GIS Management Institute.  Greg Babinski, URISA President, made the announcement during a presentation at the 2012 Esri User Conference in San Diego.  The GIS Management Institute (GMI) will develop resources and services that focus on promoting the advancement of professional best practices and standards for the management of GIS operations.

The GIS Management Institute will build upon resources that URISA has already developed, including the GIS Capability Maturity Model, the Geospatial Management Competency Model, the Exemplary Systems in Government (ESIG) Awards, the URISA Leadership Academy, and others.  A key component of the GIS Management Institute will be the development of the GIS Management Body of Knowledge (GMBOK).

The GIS Management Body of Knowledge will be the central unifying element of the Institute.  It will be used to refine the GIS Capability Maturity Model (GISCMM) and the Geospatial Management Competency Model (GMCM).  The GMBOK will be a collection of peer-reviewed best practices and standards that can inform geospatial managers and operations in order to improve the effectiveness of their use of geospatial technology.

The GMI will develop programs based on the GMBOK to accredit the capability and maturity of GIS operations against the GISCMM.  It will also develop a program to accredit GIS management educational programs against the GMBOK and GMCM.  URISA has agreed to work in cooperation with the GIS Certification Institute (GISCI) to advance the future certification of GIS managers.

Mr. Babinski explained the motivation behind the development of the GIS Management Institute: “The management of enterprise GIS operations requires knowledge, skills, and abilities that clearly set it apart from other management domains.  GIS operations today are highly complex, critical for effective agency services, and have been proven to deliver tremendous financial benefits.” He further noted that, “Central to the GMI, is the theory that as GIS operational maturity improves, ROI (return on investment) from GIS increases.”

The GIS Management Institute will be a program managed by URISA.  URISA has nearly 50 years of study, experience, and intellectual capital related to GIS management.  URISA developed and launched GISCI.  URISA developed and manages GISCorps, the ESIG awards, the URISA Leadership Academy, and a portfolio of 20 URISA workshops.

[Source: URISA press release]

Esri Joins World Ocean Council

World Ocean Council Chief Scientist Dawn Wright Brings Spatial Insight to Ocean Business Community

Esri has joined the ocean business alliance World Ocean Council (WOC) and will support its international initiatives for sustainable development and conservation of the ocean. Esri chief scientist Dawn Wright will share her geospatial expertise with WOC’s Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ocean Science working groups. Esri is the world leader in GIS.

“Geospatially referenced information is critical to addressing environmental challenges in the fluid, dynamic, interconnected marine world,” said Paul Holthus, executive director, WOC. “Esri provides tools, technology, and innovation that support the responsible use and management of ocean space and resources.”

WOC members are oil and gas, seafloor mining, shipping, fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, and offshore renewables companies. Esri is leading the way for information technology participation in WOC.

“Esri president Jack Dangermond and I are very excited that Esri is now a member of the World Ocean Council,” said Wright. “It is the best means we have seen to date for the global ocean business community members to work together and achieve synergies and economies of scale in tackling shared challenges.”

WOC develops and implements programs that improve the science, data, and maps needed to address the challenges of sustainable ocean use. For example, WOC helps ocean organizations understand and participate in geospatial activities that support robust ocean use maps. In addition, WOC has launched the Smart Ocean/Smart Industries program, which will increase the number and types of industry vessels and oceans platforms that collect georeferenced ocean, climate, and weather data.

“Esri’s alliance with the World Ocean Council and participation in its working groups will help us advance our Ocean GIS initiative,” said Wright. “The success of the council’s programs and objectives requires spatial thinking, data, and methods. GIS will play a key role in meeting sustainability objectives and developing international ocean policy.”

Esri has invited WOC to participate at the Esri International User Conference in San Diego, California, July 23–27. Holthus will introduce Esri clients and partners to this unique ocean leadership alliance in presentations at the conference’s Oceans Special Interest Group meeting and at the Environmental Showcase demo theater.

[Source: Esri press release]