Analysing Spatial Accessibility to Health Care: A Case Study of Access by Different Immigrant Groups to Primary Care Physicians in Toronto

Annals of GISAnnals of GIS, Volume 17, Issue 4, 2011

Lu Wang

“This article analyses the spatial accessibility of a number of immigrant groups to linguistically diverse primary care (family) physicians in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). The two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method, a special type of gravity model, is employed to measure spatial accessibility using Network Analyst in ArcGIS 9.3. The context of this study is the predominantly publicly funded Canadian health-care system and a multicultural urban setting where both the population and the physicians are culturally and linguistically diverse. This article focuses on a total of eight ethnicities: six groups of recent immigrants – from Hong Kong, Iran, Mainland China, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka; and two groups of long-standing immigrants – from Italy and Portugal. It examines the spatial (mis)match between the residential distribution of immigrant populations and the distribution of linguistically appropriate family physicians. The quantitative data analysed in this article include the physician data set from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario and geo-referenced 2006 Canadian Census data. This article highlights areas of poor accessibility and provides a comparison of the different ethnic groups. It demonstrates the use of the geographical information system (GIS) in public health research and yields important policy implications for public health planning.”

The Spatial Analysis of Insolation in Iran

Energy and Environment ResearchEnergy and Environment Research, Vol 1, No 1 (2011)

M. Saligheh, F. Sasanpour, Z. Sonboli, and M. Fatahi

“This study aims at doing a spatial analysis of insolation in Iran. The statistical time span that has been investigated is the period between 1948 and 2009. After determining insolation, the spatial analysis maps are drawn as monthly, seasonal, and an annual map for the total statistical period. After the analysis of the annual map, Iran has been divided into 5 areas regarding the amount of insolation, including: areas with the least amount of insolation, areas with little amount of insolation, areas with average amount of insolation, areas with high amount of insolation and areas with the highest amount of insolation. The results of the study show that farthest area in north west of Iran with 185 kw/m2 has the lowest amount of insolation and the farthest area in south east of Iran with 235 kw/m2 has the most amount of insolation.

Annual Insolation (kw/m 2 )

Annual Insolation (kw/m 2 )

“The results of this study are not in agreement with the results of previous studies, which have been done through experimental models. The former studies done though experimental models show that a huge part of center and some parts of north west of Iran receive the highest insolation and coasts of Caspian sea receives the lowest insolation. While the results of the present study show that southern coasts of Iran receive the highest insolation and the north west of Iran has the lowest insolation. These results are because of the low amount of cloudiness and high amount of radiation angle in the south coasts of Iran and the high amount of cloudiness and low amount of radiation angle in the north west of Iran.”