Animating the Cities: Dynamic Exploration of Harmonized Urban Databases (United States, France, 1800-2000)

Proceedings of the 25th International Cartographic Conference, Paris, France, 03–08 July 2011

A. BRETAGNOLLE, H. MATHIAN, and A. VAN HAMME

“The project consists in a generic visual tool for mapping and analyzing the evolution of a system of cities on a long-term period (2 centuries), in different countries. The project started in 2008 in the framework of a national grant . The first step aimed to build a dynamic urban database over two centuries, in its conceptual form as well as in its fill in. The conception of the visual tool for exploring the database represents the last part of this project and has been developed in 2010 (Van Hamme and al. 2010).

The Observed City and the Modelised City

The Observed City and the Modelised City

“Three main objectives were challenged: Designing a generic tool, that could be possibly used in the future for several countries under study (United States, France, South Africa, and possibly China and India); Allowing a dynamic exploration of the different databases, which raises a range of difficulties as they are spatio-temporal and multi-level (cities themselves and systems of cities); Giving an interactive application, that could be used by a large range of Internet users, from pupils to researchers or urban planners. The resulting interface combines time, location and attributes, according to the triad model (Peuquet, 1994). Attributes are characteristics of cities, such as population, surfaces, density, socio-economic indicators and will include also inter-urban accessibility. The application integrates the interactivity in order to propose an exploratory and animated cartography of urban dynamics, according to our conception of the urban system analysis and in order to stimulate the desire of exploration of the variety of trajectories (Dykes &al. 2004, Andrienko &al. 2005). This paper focuses on the two first implementations, United States and France.”

Spatial Analysis of Malaria Epidemiology in the Amanse West District

Kwame Nkrumah University Thesis submitted to the Department of Geomatic Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science, April 2011

Laari Prosper Basommi

“Malaria has become a major global health problem. It affects 3.5-5.0 billion people worldwide with environmental factors contributing about 70-90% of the disease risk. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million cases of Malaria are reported each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The malaria situation in Ghana is typical of sub-Saharan Africa, presenting a serious health problem in Ghana. It is hyper endemic with a crude parasite rate ranging from 10 – 70% with Plasmodium falciparum dominating. Disease Risk mapping has long been effective in disease modeling, monitoring, evaluation and providing major intervention for areas at risk.

Distance Risk Map of Malaria in relation to the Forest Cover

Distance Risk Map of Malaria in relation to the Forest Cover

“The spatial dependency of the malaria risk was explored using Poisson variograms and the risk was used to create surface maps from 2004 to 2009 to identify areas at high risk. Bayesian geostatitical approach was then used to correlate the relationship between the elevation and the disease risk. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to create the risk surfaces and overlays in the study. A buffered distances of 500m, 1000m, 1500 and 2000m was used to overlay the disease risk map with forest, rivers/streams to find out its effects with the disease prevalence. The risk map created in this study, which integrates Poisson statistical methods showed areas at risk, especially in the central portions of the district capital. It also showed an average of 20% rise yearly from 2004 to 2009. The results in the semi-variogram analysis with an average range of 2000m showed that the disease incidence was local and not global. The local nature of the disease occurrence gives credence to the fact that the covariates used which were rivers/streams, forest, temperature, rainfall and elevation had different and independent influence on the malaria prevalence. Areas which were more than 2km away from the water source (rivers/streams) recorded relatively higher cases except for some few within 1km of the Offin and Oda rivers. There was a varied effect of elevation with the disease prevalence as evidenced in the Bayesian regression model. There was a general trend of high disease incidence between 1-3 km from the forest edge. The study also showed that rainfall had an effect on the yearly disease incidence. However, there was no trend as far as the temperature over the disease prevalence was concerned.”

Spatial Analysis of Income Inequality in Agriculture

Economics Bulletin, Volume 31, Issue 3 (2011)

Robert Finger and Nadja El Benni

“We investigate the spatial dimension of farm household income inequality as well as the importance of spatial considerations for its development over time using data for the period 1990-2009 on Swiss agriculture. To this end, Gini coefficients are estimated and non-parametric bootstrap is used to construct confidence intervals.

Lorenz curve of farm household income in the cantons of Zurich and Valais 1999.

Lorenz curve of farm household income in the cantons of Zurich and Valais 1999.

“We find significant differences between Gini coefficients across space, even though most cantons are characterized by homogeneous farm household income inequality. No significant change of Gini coefficients over time is found at the national level. In contrast, the analyses at the cantonal level show a heterogeneous development of income inequality. We find both increases and decreases in cantonal Gini coefficients.”