Improving Spatial Accuracy and Usability of Weather and Climate Models

National Center for Atmospheric Research

“As a national center, the National Center for Atmospheric Research aims to provide atmospheric data and model output to the broader community. The NCAR GIS program develops methods and tools that facilitate the use of NCAR models in GIS.

Web Map Service (WMS) of air temperature anomaly for the end of the 21st century compared to present day climate

“The GIS Program works to improve interoperability of common atmospheric data formats, as well as develop tools and applications to increase usability of models and their spatial accuracy, thereby communicating scientific outcomes to the community of GIS users and the stakeholders.”

GIS and Remote Sensing as Tools for Conducting Geo-hazards Risk Assessment along Gulf of Aqaba Coastal Zone, Egypt

Journal of Coastal Conservation, Online 06 December 2010

Mohamed O. Arnous and David R. Green

“Satellite remote sensing data, in addition to Geographic Information Systems (GIS), offers an excellent alternative to conventional mapping techniques in monitoring and mapping of geo-hazards areas. One of the most sustainable development projects in Egypt has been accomplished in Sinai, especially along and around the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez. Variations along the coastal zone of the Gulf of Aqaba have been identified through the analysis of multi-temporal satellite images with the aid of GIS analysis. The study area is subject to rapid and increasing changes in land-use/land-cover that resulting from natural and human activities such as flash flooding, seismic activity, landslides, and tourist and urban activities. This is in addition to the construction projects of roads, ports, PowerStation stations, mineral exploration, beaches, and tourist villages resulting from major environmental impacts. The current study aims to use Remote Sensing and GIS tools to investigate, monitor, and assess geo-hazards through the building of a geographical database. Several techniques have been developed over the last decade mostly to study the geological and geomorphologic characteristics of the terrain; land-use and land-cover changes. These are based on satellite imagery and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to determine the topographic features, and geo-hazards maps. It is concluded that integrated approaches to monitoring can successfully be used to assess the environmental impacts along the Gulf of Aqaba coastal zone.”

Covariance Approximation for Large Multivariate Spatial Datasets with an Application to Multiple Climate Model Errors

The Annals of Applied Statistics, forthcoming article

Huiyan Sang, Mikyoung Jun, and Jianhua Z Huang

“This paper investigates the cross-correlations across multiple climate model errors. We build a Bayesian hierarchical model that ac- counts for the spatial dependence of individual models as well as cross-covariances across different climate models. Our method allows for a non-separable and non-stationary cross-covariance structure. We also present a covariance approximation approach to facilitate the computation in the modeling and analysis of very large multivariate spatial data sets. The covariance approximation consists of two parts: a reduced-rank part to capture the large-scale spatial dependence, and a sparse covariance matrix to correct the small-scale dependence error induced by the reduced rank approximation. We pay special attention to the case that the second part of the approximation has a block-diagonal structure. Simulation results of model fitting and prediction show substantial improvement of the proposed approximation over the predictive process approximation and the independent blocks analysis. We then apply our computational approach to the joint statistical modeling of multiple climate model errors.”