Dynamic Analysis of the Wenchuan Earthquake Disaster and Reconstruction with 3-year Remote Sensing Data

International Journal of Digital Earth, Volume 3, Issue 4 December 2010 , pages 355 – 364

Huadong Guo; Liangyun Liu; Liping Lei; Yanhong Wu; Liwei Li; Bing Zhang; Zhengli Zuo; Zhen Li

“Earth observation is an effective technique that plays an important role in earthquake damage reduction and reconstruction. This paper introduces the results of dynamic analysis on monitoring and assessing heavily impacted areas affected by the Wenchuan Earthquake using remote sensing data acquired in the past 3 years from 2008 to 2010. Immediately after the disaster on 12 May 2008, the Chinese Academy of Sciences launched a project entitled ‘Wenchuan Earthquake Disasters Monitoring and Assessment Using Remote Sensing Technology.’ More than 400 images from 17 satellites and 20.2TB airborne remote sensing data were acquired to facilitate quick monitoring and evaluation of severely damaged areas in 14 counties. Results of the image analyses were forwarded on a timely basis to assist with consultative service and decision-making support. In subsequent years, in order to monitor the process of environmental restoration and reconstruction, airborne optical remote sensing images covering most of the severely damaged areas were again acquired in May 2009 and April 2010. These images were analyzed and compared along with images from 2008. Results were useful in support of further work on environmental protection and reconstruction in earthquake-damaged areas. Three typical areas were selected for illustrative purposes including Tangjiashan Barrier Lake, Beichuan County, and counties of Yingxiu and the new Beichuan. These results well demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of the utility of earth observation for disaster mitigation and reconstruction.”

Public Housing and Poverty Concentration in Urban Neighbourhoods: The Case of Hong Kong in the 1990s

Urban Studies, June 2010; vol. 47, 7: pp. 1391-1413., first published on January 12, 2010

Claudio O. Delang and Ho Cheuk Lung

“The undesirable effect of public housing on poverty concentration has been recognised by a series of studies that use census-tract-level aggregate data. This paper examines whether the poverty concentration mechanism of public housing that has been observed elsewhere also functions in Hong Kong. Hong Kong has one of the largest supplies of public housing in the world and also a distinct urban environment. After assessing the poverty rates in Hong Kong in 1991 and 2001, we build a series of regression models to examine the impact of public rental housing on poverty concentration during the 1990s. Using aggregated census tract-level data, the analysis concludes that public housing does not necessarily concentrate poverty in particular census tracts. Public policy and city planning by the Hong Kong government are found to be effective in avoiding or reducing the possible adverse effect of public housing by maintaining social heterogeneity and spatial homogeneity.”

Spatial Analysis of Tuberculosis/HIV Coinfection: Its Relation with Socioeconomic Levels in a City in South-eastern Brazil

Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 2010 Oct;43(5):536-541.

Vendramini SH, Santos NS, Santos MD, Chiaravalloti-Neto F, Ponce MA, Gazetta CE, Villa TC, Ruffino Netto A.

“INTRODUCTION: Spatial analysis of the distribution of tuberculosis/HIV coinfection was performed and associated with socioeconomic indicators in São José do Rio Preto, from 1998 to 2006.

“METHODS: New TB/HIV coinfection cases were georeferenced and incidence coefficients were calculated for spatial units. Moran’s index was used to evaluate spatial associations of incidences. Multiple regressions selected variables that could best explain the spatial association of incidences. The local indicator of spatial association was used to identify significant spatial groupings.

“RESULTS: Moran’s index was 0.0635 (p=0.0000) indicating that the incidence association occurred. The variable that best explained the spatial association of incidence was the percentage of heads of families with up to three years of education. The LISA cluster map for TB/HIV coinfection incidence coefficients showed groups with high incidence rates in the North and low incidence in the South and West regions of the municipality.

“CONCLUSIONS: The study elucidated the spatial geographic distribution of TB/HIV coinfection and determined its association with socioeconomic variables, thus providing data for oriented planning, prioritizing socially disadvantaged regions that present a higher incidence of the disease.”

Varying the Variable: Presenting Different Cases for Visualizing the Relative Attractiveness of Retail Business Centers in New Britain, Connecticut

International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research, Vol. 1, Issue 4, 2010

Zachary Klaas

“It is common practice in business geography to use gravity models such as the Reilly’s Retail Law of Gravitation model to gauge the extent of presumed trade areas for retail sites based on a variable that models the general demographic attractiveness of the site in question. In the Huff retail model, an exponent represents additional attractiveness factors that differentially affect certain sites; however, it is less common practice to vary the attractiveness of one site alone and to visually inspect in a series of maps the differences in other trade areas given the variation of assumptions about the attractiveness of that site. The idea behind this form of analysis is that business managers benefit from being able to visualize a range of possible contingencies to which they may have to respond. The city of New Britain, Connecticut, is used as a demonstration model in this article to provide these kinds of visualization maps.”

Assessing the Proximity of Healthy Food Options and Food Deserts in a Rural Area in Maine

Applied Geography, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 22 October 2010

Teresa A. Hubley

“The purpose of the project described in this paper was to assess and describe the food environment facing public assistance clients in a rural county in Maine. Using the concept of a “food desert” and an objective tool for rating participating food outlets, the research team developed a spatial model of client access to healthy foods. The final map shows that most rural residents are within acceptable distances of well-rated stores, though these may not be supermarkets.

“Research Highlights

  • “Food Deserts” are defined by distance to supermarkets as sources of healthy food.
  • Stores of all types can be objectively rated for fresh, reasonably priced healthy food.
  • Food deserts re-assessed through ratings may not be true deserts.
  • Information campaigns based on ratings can identify local places and foods to meet consumer needs”

More information

The Spatial Interaction of Housing and Labour Markets: Commuting Flow Analysis of North West England

Urban Studies, March 2010; vol. 47, 3: pp. 620-649., first published on December 7, 2009

Stephen Hincks and Cecilia Wong

“The consideration of housing and labour market interaction is a relatively recent development in an academic and policy debate which has traditionally considered home and work in isolation. This paper aims to examine empirically the spatial process of housing and labour market interaction in the form of commuting at the sub-regional level via a case study of North West England. A statistical analysis and visual GIS mapping of commuting flows are adopted to explore the relationship between the two functional areas. In light of the inadequacies of traditional modelling approaches at capturing the complex nature of housing and labour market interaction, this approach is intended to generate more relevant intelligence to inform policy development. Based on the analysis of housing and labour market interaction, some pointers for future research and policy implications are drawn out.”