Space-Time Issues in Water Resources

2010 ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, California

This panel session will review current technology for space-time integration within water resources context. Through the discussion, involving the panel members and the session attendees, needs for future developments in this area will be addressed.

This panel discussion will be held Thursday, July 15, 2010, 10:15 – 11:30 a.m. in Room 25 C

Climate Change Presentations at the 2010 ESRI International User Conference

Child Body Mass Index, Obesity, and Proximity to Fast Food Restaurants

International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, Posted online on 29 Apr 2010

Jennifer M. Mellor‌, Carrie B. Dolan‌, and Ronald B. Rapoport

Objectives. Using a sample of elementary and middle school students, we examined the associations between body mass index (BMI), obesity, and measures of the proximity of fast food and full service restaurants to students’ residences. We controlled for socioeconomic status using a novel proxy measure based on housing values. Methods. We used BMI and obesity measures based on height and weight data collected as part of a school health assessment along with geocoded data on addresses of residences and food establishments. We constructed a proxy measure of socioeconomic status from public records of residential property assessments. These data were used to estimate logistic regression models of overweight and ordinary least squares models of BMI. Results. Students residing in homes with higher assessment values were significantly less likely to be obese, and had significantly lower BMIs. Upon controlling for socioeconomic status and other characteristics, the associations of BMI and obesity with proximity to food service establishments were reduced. Nonetheless, students who resided within one–tenth or one–quarter of a mile from a fast food restaurant had significantly higher values of BMI. The proximity of full service restaurants to residences did not have a significant positive association with either BMI or overweight. Conclusion. Public health efforts to limit access to fast food among nearby residents could have beneficial effects on child obesity. Public data on property value assessments may serve as useful approximations for socioeconomic status when address data are available.”

(via Directions Magazine/All Points Blog)

Monitoring Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Paneveggio Forest (Northern Italy) from 1859 to 2006

iForest 3: 72-80. [online 2010-05-17]

C. Tattoni, M. Ciolli, F. Ferretti, and M.G. Cantiani

“This paper presents the results of a forest cover analysis over a time span of 150 years in a protected area of Eastern Trentino (Northern Italy), Paneveggio Pale di S. Martino Nature Park. With the aid of Grass GIS two historical maps (1859 and 1936) and a set of aerial photographs taken from 1945 to 2006 have been analysed, orthorectified and classified with a supervised method, in order to derive a series of forest cover maps. Techniques applied and problems encountered in using heterogeneous material are discussed. The research shows that from 1859 to the present the increase of forest cover is about 25%, due to the reduced impact of forestry and farming. Timberline dynamics have also been considered; an average growth of about 1 m/year has been estimated for the last 150 years and the data have been compared with the timberline cartography and to field surveys. Timberline estimation for recent years appears to be affected mainly by lower human pressure while the relationship with climate changes is difficult to evaluate. Landscape metrics were used to quantify the changes in forest fragmentation and to identify three core areas that have remained unchanged over time. This case study fills a gap of knowledge about the history of forest cover in the area, shows how multi temporal analysis can support protected area management. This study has been requested by the Park managers, a sign t that landscape planners are becoming aware of past landscape importance.”

Spatial Heterogeneity Analysis of Soil Moisture Based on Geostatistics

Proceedings of the 2009 First IEEE International Conference on Information Science and Engineering

Xiaoning Song, Xia Zhou, Xiaotao Li, and Xinhui Li

“This paper is around the monitoring of soil moisture and the scale effect of the relevant research issues in arid / semi-arid areas. First of all, the surface temperature and vegetation index are inversed quantitatively using remote sensing data, and according to the distribution of vegetation index – surface temperature feature space, the soil moisture index is extracted. Then the regional soil moisture spatial heterogeneity characteristics are analyzed by means of geostatistics. Moreover, the best spatial resolution is determined for the study of soil moisture in this area. The study adopted a more effective understanding of regional scale soil moisture conditions, with a certain degree of scientific significance and practical significance.”

A Geostatistical Investigation into Changing Permeability of Sandstones During Weathering Simulations

Geographical Analysis, Volume 42 Issue 2 (April 2010) p180-203

Jennifer M. McKinley, Stephen McCabe

“The ability to predict the behavior of masonry materials is crucial to conserve building stone. Natural stone, such as sandstone, is not immune from the processes of weathering in the built environment and suffers from decay by granular disintegration, contour scaling, and multiple flaking. Spatial variation of rock properties is a major contributing factor to inconsistent responses to weathering. This has implications for moisture movement and salt input and output and storage, and results in unpredictability in the decay dynamics of masonry materials. This article explores the use of variography and kriging to investigate the spatial interactions between the trigger factors of stone decay, in particular, permeability and its effect on salt penetration. Sandstone blocks were used to represent fresh building stones from a weathering perspective and gave baseline characteristics for the interpretation of subsequent deterioration and decay pathways. Simulated weathering trials involved preloading a sandstone block with salt and subjecting a separate block to 20 cycles of a weathering trial designed to simulate a temperate weathering regime. Geostatistical analysis indicated differences in the spatial variation of permeability of the fresh rock and that subjected to the weathering regimes. Spatial prediction and visualization showed differences in the spatial continuity of permeability in a horizontal and vertical direction through the preloaded block after salt weathering. Continual wetting with salt and alternate heating increased permeability in a vertical direction, enabling the ingress and movement of salt and moisture more effectively through the stone.”

Multi-Criteria Land Use Classification in GIS for Buildings Construction

REAL CORP 2010 Proceedings/Tagungsband, Vienna, 18-20 May 2010

Subhija Ponjavic, Elvir Ferhatbegović

“Preparation of spatial plan is response to the objectives, which are often in conflict. Planners decide to search for optimal solutions, where the optimum is usually a subjective assessment of meeting the set of goals and criteria. Given that the land is limited resource, it raises more the question of sustainability of life on Earth and the necessity of rational, scientifically-based land planning purposes. This study developed a methodology for multi-criteria land use classification based on a set of relevant factors and geographical parameters, using the AHP method (Analytical Hierarchy Process) for multi-criteria decisions and GIS tools for creation, storage, analysis and operations of the data.

“The developed methodology is tested to solve the problem of evaluation and classification of land for the building construction, using data related to the area of Tuzla Municipality. The result of this research in a general sense is a methodology for multi-criteria land use analysis in GIS needed for spatial planning. In the specific sense a result of this research is the map of categorized land for building construction in the municipality of Tuzla, which clearly indicates the spatial potentials and constraints. Thematic maps, obtained as a result of applying the presented methodology allows planners make rational and strategically important decisions regarding the allocation of land purposes, and planning for sustainable development.”