Study on the Spatial Pattern of Rainfall Erosivity Based on Geostatistics in Hebei Province,China

Frontiers of Agriculture in China, 2008 2(3)

Mingxin MEN, Zhenrong YU, and Hao XU

“The objective of this article was to study the spatial distribution pattern of rainfall erosivity.The precipitation data at each climatological station in Hebei Province,China were collected and analyzed and modeled with SPSS and ArcGIS.A simple model of estimating rainfall erosivity was developed based on the weather station data.Also,the annual average rainfall erosivity was calculated with this model.The predicted errors,statistical feature values and prediction maps obtained by using different interpolation methods were compared.The result indicated that second-order ordinary Kriging method performed better than both zero and first-order ordinary Kriging methods.Within the method of second-order trend,Gaussian semi-variogram model performed better than other interpolation methods with the spherical or exponential models.Applying geostatistics to study rainfall erosivity spatial pattern will help to accurately and quantitatively evaluate soil erosion risk.Our research also provides digital maps that can assist in policy making in the regional soil and water conservation planning and management strategies.”

The Geography of Criminal Law

Cardozo Law Review, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2010, Drexel University Earle Mack School of Law Research Paper No. 1570599

Adam Benforado

“When Westerners explain the causes of actions or outcomes in the criminal law context, they demonstrate a strong tendency to overestimate the importance of dispositional factors, like thinking, preferring, and willing, and underestimate the impact of interior and exterior situational factors, including environmental, historical, and social forces, as well as affective states, knowledge structures, motives, and other unseen aspects of our cognitive frameworks and processes. One of the situational factors that we are particularly likely to overlook is physical space – that is, landscapes, places, natures, boundaries, and spatialities. Our shortsightedness comes at a great cost. Spatial concerns shape legal structures, order interactions, and influence behavior.

“To understand these dynamics, this Article establishes the foundation for a new spatial analysis of criminal law. By casting a wide net and capturing data across a diverse set of fields, this Article uncovers unappreciated but vital parallels, connections, and patterns concerning the ways in which physical space – and the meanings that we attach to spatial elements – affect (1) the proximate decision to commit a crime, (2) the likelihood a given person will become a criminal, (3) the experience of victimization, (4) the way in which policing is conducted, (5) what a crime is and how it is prosecuted, and (6) the consequences of being convicted.

“As the first Article in a broader project, this systematic spatial analysis provides the basis for future work dedicated to understanding the origins of our criminal system and assessing whether our current legal structures – from the laws on the books to the practices of police officers to our approaches to punishment – align with our societal needs and values, and, thus, whether the structures we have in place ought to be changed. Instead of building its normative conclusions on geographical analysis alone, the project employs the lens of the mind sciences – including social psychology, social cognition, evolutionary psychology, and related fields – to investigate and explain identified spatial dynamics. This research offers the best hope for unlocking, among other concerns, why our justice system has focused on physically isolating criminals from society; why laws are frequently structured around protecting the physical boundaries of the body, home, and community; why more police shootings occur in certain areas than others; and why we have spatially-embedded laws that become inoperative when an individual leaves a jurisdiction. ”

Spatial Analysis of Selected Manufacturing and Service Sectors in China’s Economy using County Employment Data for 1990 and 2000

Regional Studies, 1360-0591, First published on 25 February 2010

Dean M. Hanink ; Avraham Y. Ebenstein ;Robert G. Cromley

“This paper provides a comparative analysis of the spatial distribution of employment in forty-one economic sectors in China in 1990 and in 2000. Sectors are approximately split between manufacturing and services. Spatial distributions of employment by sector are analysed at the county level, and relative sectoral specialization at the county level is also considered. Manufacturing and service clusters are identified in both years using factor analysis, and the resulting factor scores are used in mapping their spatial extent. In general, geographical concentration in Chinese manufacturing accelerated between 1990 and 2000, while services became more spatially uniform in their distribution.”