Spatial-temporal Analysis of Gummosis in Three Cashew Clones at Northeastern Brazil

Journal of Phytopathology, Published Online: Mar 11 2010

Alex Q. Cysne, José E. Cardoso, Aline de Holanda N. Maia, and Fabio C. Farias

“The cashew gummosis caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae is one of the most important disease of cashew in the northeast of Brazil. The lack of studies about method of early detection, pathogen dissemination, host predisposition, mechanisms of attack and defence and efficient control measures assures this disease as a limiting factor as to growing of cashew under semi-arid conditions. Therefore, the characterization of spatial patterns of gummosis development under commercial orchards may provide important insights into the mechanisms involving in dissemination and disease progress of this disease, as well as in the understanding of dynamic of host, pathogen and environmental interactions for this pathossystem. This work aimed to characterize gummosis temporal and special dynamics in three commercial orchards of cashew clones of cashew with different levels of susceptibility by studying the special arrangement of diseased plants. Disease incidence and severity, quantified determined by a descriptive scale in clones BRS 226 (resistant), Embrapa 51 (slightly resistant) and Faga 11 (susceptible) in a commercial orchard located in Pio IX district (Piaui state, Brazil), were monitored and mapped. Data were collected within three blocks of 90 plants for each clone. Indices of dispersion were estimated to study the spatial dynamic. The dynamics and structure of gummosis foci were also analysed. As expected, data showed different degrees of gummosis incidence and severity for the three clones. Even under different levels of disease, a random dispersion pattern model of dispersion could be observed at the beginning of epidemic for all clones. However, as disease develops, a clustered model is likely to fit. The increase in disease incidence resulted from the increasing in both focus number and size.”