Geoparsing Maps the Future of Text Documents

…from Directions Magazine

Doug Caldwell writes “Geoparsing offers the promise of modern geospatial alchemy… the ability to turn text documents into geospatial databases. This “magic” is done in two steps: 1) entity extraction and 2) disambiguation, which is also known as grounding or geotagging. Geospatial entity extraction uses natural language processing to identify place names in text, while disambiguation associates a name with its correct location. The geoparsing results can be inserted into the original document, used to produce a new document, or formatted for output to a geospatial application.

Early Warning Signals of Change in Human and Natural Systems

nsflogo…from the National Science Foundation

“What do abrupt changes in ocean circulation and Earth’s climate, shifts in wildlife populations and ecosystems, the global finance market and its system-wide crashes, and asthma attacks and epileptic seizures have in common?

“According to a paper published this week in the journal Nature, all share generic early-warning signals that indicate a critical threshold of change dead ahead.

“In the paper, Martin Scheffer of Wageningen University in The Netherlands and co-authors, including William Brock and Stephen Carpenter of the University of Wisconsin at Madison and George Sugihara of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, Calif., found that similar symptoms occur in many systems as they approach a critical state of transition.”

A Technique for Building Representation in Oblique View Maps of Modern Urban Areas

caj…from The Cartographic Journal

“This paper presents a technique for creating oblique view maps of urban areas. We identify and apply cartographic and cognitive principles to develop a solution in the context of state-of-art geographic information systems. The gap in the ability of these systems to render three-dimensional buildings into maps is addressed. At the core of our solution is a building facade modelling approach that supports varying degrees of abstraction. This is achieved by introducing a concept of ‘facade waveforms’ and representing building facades as combinations of these waveforms. A Fourier series approximation of the waveforms is used during the rendering processes resulting in an elegant solution to anti-aliasing. The formulation retains the semantic information in the representation that enables meaningful extensions like night time facade generation. The solution is implemented as a pixel shader and therefore leads to a large reduction in texture memory requirement compared with existing building rendering techniques. Additionally, in the case of web based systems, there is significant reduction in bandwidth requirement. We highlight the features of the proposed solution by generating demonstrative maps and images.”

Road Extraction from Satellite Images using a Fuzzy-Snake Model

caj…from The Cartographic Journal

“This paper proposes a developed approach to extract roads from optical remotely sensed images. The approach is based on the following steps. First, a window with size of 5 × 5 pixels is moved over the image to calculate the features: mean (x1), standard deviation (x2), skewness (x3) and kurtosis (x4). Then, the roads are identified based on the converted features to the specific fuzzy sets of the linguistic variables. The used linguistic variables are Mean, Standard deviation, Skewness, Kurtosis and Grey-scale with trapezoid and triangle membership functions. Next, the skeleton of the identified roads is extracted using two structure elements from the mathematical morphology. Finally, a snake model is employed to extract the road vector form from the skeletons. The results of the accuracy evaluation demonstrate that the developed road extraction approach can provide both good visual and high positional accuracy. The approach is tested over the samples of SPOT-4 panchromatic images from areas in Iran.”

Qualitative GIS: A Mixed Methods Approach

qual…from Amazon.com

“Geographic Information Systems are an essential tool for analyzing and representing quantitative spatial data. Qualitative GIS explains the recent integration of qualitative research with Geographical Information Systems.

“Making reference to representation, analysis, and theory throughout, the text shows how to frame questions, collect data, analyze results, and represent findings in a truly integrated way. An important addition to the mixed methods literature, Qualitative GIS will be the standard reference for upper-level students and researchers using qualitative methods and Geographic Information Systems.”

‘Qualitative GIS is coming of age, and this definitive collection explains why it deserves broad attention. These carefully selected essays by leading researchers, organized around a broad conception of qualitative GIS that extends beyond multi-media data integration to embrace new software tools and interpretive, situated epistemologies, will push readers to rethink not only their preconceptions about qualitative GIS, but also about GI science and critical GIS. GIS researchers, practicioners, observers and users will find much to chew on here.’

–Professor Eric Sheppard, University of Minnesota, USA

Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission to Migrate StreamNet Mapping Application

gnPacific States Marine Fisheries Commission Chooses GeoNorth to Architect ArcGIS Server Solution

GeoNorth announced a recent contract award from the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC). Under this new contract GeoNorth will provide assistance with the migration and re-engineering of the existing StreamNet mapping application from ArcIMS to ArcGIS Server.

StreamNet is a cooperative information management and data dissemination project focused on fisheries and aquatic related data and data related services in the Columbia River basin and the Pacific Northwest. It is funded through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Fish and Wildlife Program by the Bonneville Power Administration and is administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. The project supports staff inside the management agencies to obtain, georeference and standardize data. The data are maintained and disseminated through the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC). A variety of data are provided in tabular format and as maps and GIS layers. Information is available through the online database query, interactive maps, the Data Store, or by custom request.

With the goal of updating an aging application and significantly improving its usability, performance, and management, a team of GeoNorth and PCMFC developers will collaborate to create the new StreamNet mapping site using the latest in ESRI’s ArcGIS Server technology including the JavaScript API, as well as the potential incorporation of ArcGIS Online data. The new StreamNet site will simplify the searching interface for accessing data, determine available data based on geography, and present information to the user in an intuitive, meaningful format.

GeoNorth will leverage the experience and expertise gained from several past projects for similar agencies tied to natural resource management, one of GeoNorth’s core business sectors. With 15 years of experience in this area, GeoNorth has worked with such agencies as the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Park Service, US Minerals Management Service, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Natural Resources, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, University of Alaska Statewide Office of Land Management, Oregon Department of State Lands, and the Bristol Bay Science and Research Institute.

[Source: GeoNorth press release]

StreamNet is a cooperative information management and data dissemination project focused on fisheries and aquatic related data and data related services in the Columbia River basin and the Pacific Northwest. It is funded through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Fish and Wildlife Program by the Bonneville Power Administration and is administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. The project supports staff inside the management agencies to obtain, georeference and standardize data. The data are maintained and disseminated through the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC). A variety of data are provided in tabular format and as maps and GIS layers. Information is available through the online database query, interactive maps, the Data Store, or by custom request.