GIS as Mode 2 Science

I just ran across a blog post from June 2006 by Nigel Waters titled “GIS Bridges Scientific Modes.” Interesting classification of GIS as Mode 2 (holistic, integrative, multidisciplinary) science, as opposed to Mode 1 (specialized, reductionist) science.

One thought on “GIS as Mode 2 Science

  1. Actually I noted that Paul Longley and his co-authors in the Big Book of GIS 2 had suggested that much of GIS is Mode 2 Science.

    I tried to argue that GIS exists in both of these highly complementary and mutually interactive worlds of science.

    Nigel Waters

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