3-D Visualizations of Coastal Bathymetry by Utilization of Airborne TOPSAR Polarized Data

International Journal of Digital Earth, Volume 3, Issue 2 June 2010 , pages 187 – 206

Maged Marghany; Arthur P. Cracknell; and Mazlan Hashim

“Multi-frequency C and L bands in the TOPSAR data have been utilized to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) bathymetry pattern. The main objective of this study is to utilize fuzzy arithmetic to reduce the errors arising from speckle in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data when constructing ocean bathymetry from polarized SAR data. In doing so, two 3-D surface models, the Volterra algorithm and a fuzzy B-spline (FBS) algorithm, which construct a global topological structure between the data points, were used to support an approximation to the real surface. Volterra algorithm was used to express the non-linearity of TOPSAR data intensity gradient based on the action balance equation (ABC). In this context, a first-order kernel of Volterra algorithm was used to express ABC equation. The inverse of Volterra algorithm then performed to simulate 2-D current velocities from CVV and LHH band. Furthermore, the 2-D continuity equation then used to estimate the water depth. In order to reconstruct 3-D bathymetry pattern, the FBS has been performed to water depth information which was estimated from 2-D continuity equation. The best reconstruction of coastal bathymetry of the test site in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, was obtained with polarized L and C bands SAR acquired with HH and VV polarizations, respectively. With 10 m spatial resolution of TOPSAR data, bias of -0.004 m, the standard error mean of 0.023 m, r 2 value of 0.95, and 90% confidence intervals in depth determination was obtained with LHH band.”