Transboundary dimensions of marine spatial planning: Fostering inter-jurisdictional relations and governance

mpMarine Policy, Volume 65, March 2016, Pages 85–96

By Stephen Jay, Fátima L. Alves, Cathal O’Mahony, Maria Gomez, Aoibheann Rooney, Margarida Almodovar, Kira Gee, Juan Luis Suárez de Vivero, Jorge M.S. Gonçalves, Maria da Luz Fernandes, Olvido Tello, Sarah Twomey, Inmaculada Prado, Catarina Fonseca, Luis Bentes, Guida Henriques, and Aldino Campos

“Highlights

  • Marine spatial planning requires a transboundary approach.
  • Differences between institutional systems and practices complicate joint-working.
  • A stronger understanding of governance frameworks is needed.
  • Project experience points to the importance of fostering multiple inter-linkages.

“There is broad agreement that marine spatial planning (MSP) should incorporate transboundary considerations, reflecting the cross-border nature of marine and coastal ecosystem dynamics and maritime resources and activities. This is recognised in the European Union’s recent legislation on MSP, and experience in transboundary approaches is developing through official processes and pilot studies. However, differences between institutional systems, priorities and practices may not easily be overcome in transboundary initiatives. This requires a stronger focus on understanding the governance frameworks within which MSP operates and fostering interlinkages between them.

transboundary-MSP

TPEA data viewer for the southern pilot area.

“This article discusses a European-funded project in which emphasis was placed on joint-working in every aspect, based on principles of equity and mutual trust. This led to the development of inter-relations, not just of the geographies and maritime resources and activities of the marine areas concerned, but also of the systems of data management, governance and policy-making and of the participants involved as officials or stakeholders, including their means and cultures of exchange. It is suggested that transboundary initiatives in MSP would benefit by complementing current resource management-focused understandings with governance and policy-related perspectives, drawing on experience in other fields of territorial cooperation.”

A submarine landslide source for the devastating 1964 Chenega tsunami, southern Alaska

epEarth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 438, 15 March 2016, Pages 112–121

By Daniel S. Brothers, Peter J. Haeussler, Lee Liberty, David Finlayson, Eric Geist, Keith Labay, and Mike Byerly

“Highlights:

  • New geophysical evidence for a large landslide complex offshore Chenega Island.
  • Pervasive failure of glacimarine sediment along a perched sedimentary basin.
  • Earthquake-triggered submarine landslides are likely cause of tsunami in 1964.
  • Landslides display complex flow evolution from source area to deposition.

“During the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake (MwMw 9.2), several fjords, straits, and bays throughout southern Alaska experienced significant tsunami runup of localized, but unexplained origin. Dangerous Passage is a glacimarine fjord in western Prince William Sound, which experienced a tsunami that devastated the village of Chenega where 23 of 75 inhabitants were lost – the highest relative loss of any community during the earthquake. Previous studies suggested the source of the devastating tsunami was either from a local submarine landslide of unknown origin or from coseismic tectonic displacement. Here we present new observations from high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection surveys conducted in the waters adjacent to the village of Chenega. The seabed morphology and substrate architecture reveal a large submarine landslide complex in water depths of 120–360 m.

7.3-D perspective view of shaded relief bathymetry offshore Chenega village.

7.3-D perspective view of shaded relief bathymetry offshore Chenega village.

“Analysis of bathymetric change between 1957 and 2014 indicates the upper 20–50 m (∼0.7 km3) of glacimarine sediment was destabilized and evacuated from the steep face of a submerged moraine and an adjacent ∼21 km2 perched sedimentary basin. Once mobilized, landslide debris poured over the steep, 130 m-high face of a deeper moraine and then blanketed the terminal basin (∼465 m water depth) in 11±5 m11±5 m of sediment. These results, combined with inverse tsunami travel-time modeling, suggest that earthquake-triggered submarine landslides generated the tsunami that struck the village of Chenega roughly 4 min after shaking began. Unlike other tsunamigenic landslides observed in and around Prince William Sound in 1964, the failures in Dangerous Passage are not linked to an active submarine delta. The requisite environmental conditions needed to generate large submarine landslides in glacimarine fjords around the world may be more common than previously thought.”

A GIS tool for automatic calculation of glacier equilibrium-line altitudes

cgComputers & Geosciences, Volume 82, September 2015, Pages 55–62

By Ramón Pellitero, Brice R. Rea, Matteo Spagnolo, Jostein Bakke, Philip Hughes, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Sven Lukas, and Adriano Ribolini

“Highlights:

  • We describe Equilibrium Line Altitude calculation methods for palaeoglaciers.
  • We examine suitability of each method for different glacier types.
  • We present a toolbox for automatic ELA calculation on AAR and AABR methods.
  • Toolbox is coded in Python and runs in ArcGIS.
  • Toolbox use and operation are described.

“Abstract:

A toolbox for the automated calculation of glacier equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) using the Accumulation Area Ratio, Area-Altitude Balance Ratio, Area-Altitude and Kurowski methods is presented. These are the most commonly-used methods of ELA calculation in palaeo-glacier reconstructions.

glac.jpg

“The toolbox has been coded in Python and runs in ArcGIS requiring only the reconstructed surface of the palaeo-glacier (a DEM) as input. Through fast and automatic calculation this toolbox simplifies the process of ELA determination and can successfully work both for a single glacier and for large datasets of multiple glaciers.”

Where Are Socioeconomically Deprived Immigrants Located in Chile? A Spatial Analysis of Census Data Using an Index of Multiple Deprivation from the Last Three Decades

“Introduction and Purpose of the Study

Immigrants in Chile have diverse characteristics and include socioeconomically deprived populations. The location of socioeconomically deprived immigrants is important for the development of public policy intelligence at the local and national levels but their areas of residence have not been mapped in Chile. This study explored the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation among immigrants in Chile, 1992–2012, and compared it to the total population.

Material and Methods

Areas with socioeconomically deprived populations were identified with a deprivation index which we developed modelled upon the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for England. Our IMD was based upon the indicators of unemployment, low educational level (primary) and disability from Census data at county level for the three decades 1992, 2002 and 2012, for 332, 339 and 343 counties respectively. We developed two versions of the IMD one based on disadvantage among the total population and another focused upon the circumstances of immigrants only. We generated a spatial representation of the IMD using GIS, for the overall IMD score and for each dimension of the index, separately. We also compared the immigrants´ IMD to the total population´s IMD using Pearson´s correlation test.

journal.pone.0146047.g002.PNG

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Results

Results showed that socioeconomically deprived immigrants tended to be concentrated in counties in the northern and central area of Chile, in particular within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. These were the same counties where there was the greatest concentration of socioeconomic deprivation for the total population during the same time periods. Since 1992 there have been significant change in the location of the socioeconomically deprived populations within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago with the highest IMD scores for both the total population and immigrants becoming increasingly concentrated in the central and eastern counties of the Region.

Conclusion

This is the first study analysing the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation among international immigrants and the total population in a Latin American country. Findings could inform policy makers about location of areas of higher need of social protection in Chile, for both immigrants and the total resident population in the country.”

New Book Teaches the Principles of Good Map Design

new-esri-book-teaches-the-principles-of-good-map-design-lg

This book will guide mapmakers though the process of designing visually pleasing and easily understandable maps.

Designing Better Maps teaches tried and true methods of map design.

Mapmakers should always strive to create maps that look great and get their message across clearly and succinctly. According to Esri president Jack Dangermond, more emphasis today needs to be placed on map design, especially on the web. “We need to spend more time designing maps and not just producing them,” Dangermond said at a recent geodesign conference.

Cartographer Cynthia A. Brewer’s new edition of Designing Better Maps: A Guide for GIS Users, published by Esri, will guide mapmakers through the process of designing visually pleasing and easily understandable maps. “This book helps you develop the graphic skills you need for mapmaking,” said Brewer, a professor and head of the geography department at Pennsylvania State University.

In writing the book, Brewer drew on 30 years of experience teaching and working in map design. The book focuses on the basics of cartography, including layout design; working with basemaps, legends, scales, and projections; selecting colors and type; and customizing symbols. In this second edition, Brewer has added a chapter on publishing and sharing maps and devotes a section to her ColorBrewer application, an online color selection tool that any mapmaker can use. ColorBrewer is now part of the new Esri ArcGIS Pro application.

The large selection of color maps included in the book prove to be very instructional, with examples of poor or mediocre maps being compared to well-designed maps. For example, there are two maps of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, located in the United States and Canada. One map is what Brewer calls “excessively decorated,” with a huge scale bar, illegible typeface, and other elements that distract from the map. The second map, meant to showcase vegetation types, is simple and designed to make the most important information stand out.

Brewer has been a faculty member at Pennsylvania State University for 21 years, teaching introductory cartography and other map design courses. She has written four books, including Designed Maps: A Sourcebook for GIS Users, which complemented her 2005 edition of Designing Better Maps: A Guide for GIS Users.

Brewer also is an affiliate faculty member at the US Geological Survey (USGS) Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (CEGIS). She has done consulting work with the National Park Service, the US Census Bureau, the National Cancer Institute, the National Center for Health Statistics, and Esri. She won the Henry Gannett Award for Exceptional Contributions to Topographic Mapping from the USGS in 2013.

A video about the book is available to watch at esriurl.com/designingbettermaps.

Designing Better Maps: A Guide for GIS Users is available in print (ISBN: 9781589484405, 250 pages, $59.99), or as an e-book (ISBN: 9781589484375, 250 pages, $49.99). The book is available at online retailers worldwide, at esri.com/esripress, or by calling 1-800-447-9778. Outside the United States, visit esri.com/esripressorders for complete ordering options, or visit esri.com/distributors to contact your local Esri distributor. Interested retailers can contact Esri Press book distributor Ingram Publisher Services.

URISA 2016 Exemplary Systems in Government Awards Process Opens

URISAURISA is pleased to announce the Exemplary Systems in Government (ESIG) Awards process for 2016. Since 1980, URISA’s ESIG Awards have recognized extraordinary achievements in the use of geospatial information technology that have improved the delivery and quality of government services. The award competition is open to all public agencies at the federal, state/provincial, regional and local levels. Winners will be recognized during the Awards Ceremony at GIS-Pro 2016 in Toronto, Ontario, October 31-November 3, 2016.

Submissions are invited in two categories:

Enterprise Systems: Systems in this category are outstanding and working examples of using information systems technology in a multi-department environment as part of an integrated process. These systems exemplify effective use of technology yielding widespread improvements in the process(es) and/or service(s) involved and/or cost savings to the organization.

Single Process Systems: Systems in this category are outstanding and working examples of applying information system technology to automate a specific SINGLE process or operation involving one department or sub-unit of an agency. The system application results in extended and/or improved government services that are more efficient and/or save money.

Submissions are due June 1, 2016. An application requiring details about the Jurisdiction/Organization, System Design, Implementation, Organizational Impact and System Resources is available online: http://www.urisa.org/awards/exemplary-systems-in-government/

The list of 2015 ESIG Award Recipients follows.

ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS CATEGORY

Exemplary System: Boldly Know: York Region’s Enterprise GIS – Regional Municipality of York, Ontario Canada

Distinguished Systems:

  • Transportation Information Mapping System (TIMS) – Ohio Department of Transportation
  • NPMap Builder – US National Park Service

SINGLE PROCESS SYSTEM CATEGORY

Exemplary System: Next Generation Permitting System – Pierce County, Tacoma, Washington

Distinguished Systems:

  • Calgary Automated Survey Plan Verification and Reporting (CASPER) – City of Calgary , Alberta Canada
  • Mobile Voter Line Wait Application – Collin County, Texas

To view last year’s winning submissions, visit: http://www.urisa.org/awards/exemplary-systems-in-government/

[Source: URISA press release]

OATools: An ArcMap add-in for the orientation analysis of geological structures

cgComputers & Geosciences, Volume 87, February 2016, Pages 67–75

By Lenka Kociánová and Rostislav Melichar

“Highlights:

  • Tools for orientation analysis of structural data were developed for ArcGIS 10.2.
  • OATools analyze directional data in relation to their spatial information.
  • Both angular and spatial characteristics of the data can be explored in ArcGIS.
  • The structural conditions of the crystalline complex are described using the OATools.

“This paper describes Orientation Analysis Tools (OATools), a new add-in, which has been developed for ArcGIS software (ESRI) to allow the spatial analysis of structural data. These tools bring a complex approach to structural data analysis that highlights the spatial aspect of oriented data. In this paper we introduce the functionality of this add-in, which allows users to plot selected data in azimuthal projection, calculate and plot fold axes, construct density distribution diagrams and rose histograms, and create maps of spatial averages and fold axes.

OATools

(a) Svratkaand Polička crystalline units in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic). Metamorphic foliation plotted in azimuthal projections (equal-area) for particular sectors (Geologicalmap1:500,000, Czech Geological Survey(2014)). (b) Field data collected by Melichar (1995): metamorphic foliation (Geological map 1:500,000, Czech Geological Survey (2014)).

“There is a link between projections and maps; therefore, it is possible to select point data in the projection and see their location on the map, and vice versa. Practical use of these tools is demonstrated in a case study of the Svratka and Polička crystalline units (Eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), where a large dataset was collected. Using OATools the structural conditions were explored. Major changes in foliation dip directions were detected and the axial surfaces of the folds were determined. We also demonstrate the benefit of applying these tools, together with the potential of GIS with respect to spatial data queries, storage, and visualization.”